Stanley Kubrick (USA, 1928–99) was a master who took the art of filmmaking further than any other contemporary director, a creative perfectionist whose work now fascinates new generations. He started out as a photographer before moving into film noir aged barely 25, after which the power and originality of his work soon brought him box-office success. In the 1960's he lived and worked in London, away from the scandal caused by his adaptation of Lolita (1962) and from the major studios, from which, uniquely, he was able to wrest total control of his films. He made only a dozen features in 50 years, each of which displays an extraordinary degree of technical and aesthetic invention. From the sci-fi 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) onwards, each of his masterpieces explores new genres and controversial topics, such as Vietnam (Full Metal Jacket, 1987), violence (A Clockwork Orange, 1971), horror (The Shining, 1980) and sexuality (Eyes Wide Shut, 1999).